OUNDER Saints of the English Church have been chosen and their Arms or Symbols are set up above the six columns of the arcade behind the Chair and in the five spaces between them. Some have authentic mediæval Arms. Others have not, and can therefore be best represented by symbols expressing their life-work. The six above the columns have Arms; the five between symbols.
Above the columns from left to right are:
ST. CHAD. The Arms of Jerusalem differently tinctured.
ST. EDMUND, KING AND MARTYR. Three Crowns. These were much reverenced in mediæval times and adopted in different blazonry by abbeys, cities and colleges. Richard II bore them instead of the Royal Arms in his Irish war; and they were the Arms of Ireland until Henry VIII substituted the Harp.
ST. AUGUSTINE. Well established; associated with Canterbury.
ST. EDWARD THE CONFESSOR. His well-known Cross and five Martlets.
ST. CUTHBERT. Well established; associated with Durham. The Cross is modelled from his actual Pectoral Cross preserved at Durham.
ST. WILFRID. Associated with York.
Between the columns left to right:
ST. ALBAN. A Saltire, or St. Andrew's Cross, the Arms of St. Albans Abbey, is associated with him; it is here composed of a Roman Eagle and a Roman Sword surmounted by a Crown of Martyrdom.
ST. COLUMBA. Symbols of Iona; a Menhir Cross; Beehive huts; a Coracle in which he crossed the Irish seas.
ST. AIDAN. Symbols of Lindisfarne where Christianity was first nurtured in England; a Chapel on the Island; Sea Birds, for which there is still sanctuary.
ST. DUNSTAN. As Abbot of Glastonbury he is represented by the Staff of Joseph of Arimathea, which by tradition grew there into a Thorn Tree; and the Pallium of the Archbishops of Canterbury. St. Dunstan restored discipline in the Church through the Benedictines, whose saying was "LABORARE EST ORARE ": To labour is to pray.
ST. SWITHUN. A modern authority gives Rain-drops and Apples for his Arms. Little is known of this Bishop of Winchester; his veneration was probably connected with a midsummer weather festival.